«فلسفه برای کودکان» و کنترل پرخاشگری

نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسنده

دکترای تخصصی مشاوره، عضو هیئت علمی پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی

چکیده

پرخاشگری، درمیان واکنش‌های هیجانی، به‌دلیل پیامدهای فردی و اجتماعی‌اش توجه بسیاری از روان‌شناسان و جامعه‌شناسان را به خود جلب کرده است. علی‌رغم بروز برخی رفتارهای پرخاشگرانه در سال‌های اولیة تولد، کودک درطی فرایند رشد خود فرصت‌هایی برای یادگیری مهارت‌های نظارت بر هیجان و رفتار را خواهد داشت، که منجر به کنترل مناسب خشم و پرخاشگری می‌شود. بااین‌حال، بعضی از کودکان در کسب این مهارت‌ها موفق نیستند، در‌نتیجه سطوحی از پرخاشگری را در روابط میان‌فردی بروز می‌‌دهند. در کنار خانواده، مدرسه مهم‌ترین نهاد برای پرورش مهارت‌های اجتماعی کودک است. تحقیقات، دربارۀ علل پرخاشگری در کودکان، نشان داده است که ناکامی در خود‌ابرازگری، قرارگرفتن در موقعیت‌هایی که کودک دچار دوگانگی و تضاد درونی می‌شود، و فقدان کفایت در قوة استدلال می‌تواند از مهم‌ترین آن‌ها باشند. بنابراین ایجاد فضایی دوستانه و تفکربرانگیز، که در آن گوش‌دادن به سخن کودکان ارزش محسوب می‌شود و منجر به ارتقای قدرت استدلال و داوری کودک می‌شود، می‌تواند در پیشگیری از پرخاشگری بسیار کارساز باشد. مبدعان برنامة «فلسفه برای کودکان» بر این باورند که پرورش قدرت تمییز، داوری، و استدلال‌ورزی، که مبتنی بر تفکر منطقی است، باید از دوران کودکی و با شروع زندگی اجتماعی کودک آغاز شود. بدین‌ترتیب، برنامة فلسفه برای کودکان در تلاش است با ایجاد فضایی موسوم به «حلقۀ کندوکاو» فرصت تقویت قدرت استدلال و داوری را برای کودکان فراهم سازد. می‌توان انتظار داشت که هم‌زمان با تقویت تفکر استدلالی و منطقی کودک از طریق گفت‌وگوهای جمعی، بتوان پرخاشگری را در آنان مهار کرد. نتایج تحقیقات متعددی تأثیرات مثبت این برنامه بر کنترل رفتارهای پرخاشگرانه را در کودکان نشان داده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Philosophy for Children and Aggression Control

نویسنده [English]

  • Mehrnoosh Hedayati
چکیده [English]

Among emotional reactions, due to its individual and social consequences, aggression has attracted the attention of many psychologists and sociologists. Despite some aggressive behaviors at early years, there are some opportunities to learn self-supervising skills in a child’s growth process which lead to appropriate anger and aggression control. However, since some children fail to acquire such skills, they express some levels of aggression in their interpersonal relationships. School is the most important institution in developing children’s social skills. Research indicates that the most significant reasons for aggression include failure in self-expression, facing dilemmas and ambivalent situations, and lack of sufficient reasoning ability. Therefore, creating a friendly and thought-provoking environment in which listening to a child is considered a value can cultivate reasoning ability, promote   judgment, and foster making distinctions. The result of such an environment is hindering children from aggressive behavior. The pioneers of Philosophy for Children Program believe that improving reasoning skills derived from logical thinking should begin with a child’s social life. Hence, Philosophy for Children Program, as a reflective approach, tries to boost reasoning and judgment of children through creating a community of inquiry. Group discussions, while strengthening their reasoning and logical abilities, are expected to control their aggression. Many researchers showed positive effect of this program on control of aggression in children and adolescents

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • aggression
  • community of inquiry
  • Empathy
  • philosophy for children
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