پردازش ذهنی در کودکان دوزبانه و تک‌زبانه

نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار و عضو هیئت علمی رشتۀ آموزش زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ‌ارشد آموزش زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ‌ارشد آموزش زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

دربارة تأثیر دوزبانگی در عملکردهای ذهنی و خصوصاً هوش، به دو دیدگاه متقابل می‌توان اشاره کرد: دیدگاه مبتنی‌بر دوزبانگی افزایشی و دیدگاه مبتنی‌بر دوزبانگی کاهشی. پژوهش حاضر افراد تک‌زبانه و دوزبانه را از نظر فرایندهای ذهنی، به‌ویژه هوش، مقایسه می‌کند. این پژوهش بر مبنای «فرضیۀ صفر»ی است که نبود تفاوت معنادار را در عملکرد ذهنی کودکان دوزبانه و تک‌زبانه مطرح می‌کند. به‌ منظور تأیید یا رد فرضیۀ کنونی، 25 کودک دبستانی در محدودۀ سنی هشت تا ده سال به آزمون وکسلر پاسخ دادند که به همین منظور طراحی شده است. جهت مقایسۀ عملکرد دو گروه در این بررسی، آزمون تی از دو نمونۀ مستقل گرفته شد که حاکی از نبود تفاوت معنادار بین دو گروه بود. با توجه به نتایج این بررسی، به‌نظر می‌رسد که افراد تک‌زبانه و دوزبانه از نظر عملکرد ذهنی و به‌ویژه هوش تفاوت معناداری نداشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Cognitive Processing in Bilingual and Monolingual Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahin Vaezi 1
  • Fatemeh Zolfaghari Ardchi 2
  • Ebrahim Rahimi 3
چکیده [English]

With regard to the effect of bilingualism on cognitive processing and especially intelligence, two different approaches including additive and subtractive bilingualism can be introduced. The present study aimed to investigate the differences bilingual and monolingual children possess in terms of their cognitive processes in general and intelligence in particular. In order to achieve the purpose of the study, 25 children aged between 8 and 10 years old studying at a primary school in Tehran were selected and took the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R). The test was performed separately for each child. Bilingual children had proficiency in Azari and Persian, whereas; monolingual children were only proficient in Persian. An independent samples t-test was run to compare the performances of the two groups the results of which indicated that there was no significant difference between the means of the two groups on the test and thus the null hypothesis was not rejected. Based on the findings of this study, it seems that monolingual and bilingual children do not have any significant difference in terms of cognitive processing (intelligence).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Additive Bilingualism
  • bilingualism
  • Cognitive Processing
  • intelligence
  • Subtractive Bilingualism
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