عنوان مقاله [English]
The Philosophy for Children (P4C) is an educational program developed by Matthew Lipman in the second half of the 20th century. It is aimed at developing the power of thinking and reasoning in children. The best method and element for teaching thinking in this educational program is the use of stories. With the various atmospheres it provides, a story allows the child to associate with its heroes and put himself in their place through identification and active comparison and get involved in challenges. Using a descriptive-analytical desk-based method, this study discusses the philosophical, literary and psychological richness of the stories "The Book Lover", "Baby’s Navel" and "Fish" from the collection of stories "Majid’s Tales" by Houshang Moradi Kermani based on the P4C educational program. Results show that all three studied stories are rich in terms of philosophical themes, although they do have some weaknesses which need to be modified and rewritten in order to be used in the P4C educational program.
Keywords: Story collection, The Tales of Majid, Houshang Moradi Kermani, P4C educational program, Matthew Lipman.
The Fabak educational program is a curriculum related to the pre-university period, which was founded by the American Matthew Lippman in the second half of the 20th century, and its first goal is to improve the state of thinking in schools and introduce the element of thought into the educational system. The next step is to bring reasonable and sensitive citizens to the environment. The best method and element for teaching thinking in this educational program is the use of stories. The story, with the many and different atmospheres it provides, allows the child to associate with the heroes of the story and put himself in their place through identification and active comparison. and get involved in challenges.
Materials and methods
This research was done with a descriptive-analytical method and with a library study, and the philosophical, literary and psychological richness of the stories "Book Lover", "Naf Bacheh" and "Fish" from the collection of stories "Qassehai" Majid" by Hoshang Moradi Kermani has been reviewed based on the Fabak educational program.
All the three studied stories have good richness in terms of philosophical themes, and in terms of lack of suggestion, all three stories have indirect suggestions and are favorable in this respect. In terms of challengingness and questioning, there are many challenges and questions in the studied stories that involve the child's mind, which can be like a springboard that leads the child and adolescent audience to the issues and Put real life problems. In terms of dialogue, the story of "Ashq Kitab" revolves around one issue, and that is the issue of taking a book, which can fit into the circle of philosophical exploration; But in the story of Naf Bacha, there are not many dialogues that are challenging for the audience, only at the end of the story there is a dialogue that is challenging and can be used for philosophical exploration in the classroom. . In the story of "Fish", there are two-way and mutual conversations between the people of the story, which makes the story similar to the atmosphere of a philosophical exploration circle; But these conversations need to be modified and rewritten in order to be in the direction of the goals of the Fabak program. In terms of characterization, it should be said that the characterization in all three stories around the main character of the story has been done in a good way and the main character is a curious, questioning, brave, bold and experimental character who has a dynamic personality. which is the same age and age of the target audience as a teenager and the reader can easily identify with it, and the prejudice about two of the characters in the story "Ashq Kitab" is a weakness that in terms of the educational program of Fabak on the character This story is included and should be rewritten. In terms of plot, it should be said that the story of "Ashq Kitab" has a plot based on cause and effect relationship, and at the end of the story, there is no unraveling, which is suitable for Fabak program. The plot of the story "Navel of the Child" is also based on cause and effect relationships, and there are suspenses in different parts of it that make the story interesting, and the unraveling at the end of the story is ambiguous, which can be suitable for Fabak program. be placed Pirang in the story of "fish" is suggestive; In the sense that the story unravels and the reader reaches a point of peace at the end and it must be rewritten in the Fabak program. Regarding the believability of the stories, it should be said that all of them are believable in general; Although some defects can be seen in them; But they are not such as to question the believability of the whole story. From a psychological point of view, the stories also have a fluent and modern language; Although there are terms, allusions and proverbs in them that should be rewritten. The concepts used in the stories are suitable for the understanding of age group "D". The topics used in the stories are topics that are relevant to the daily life of children and teenagers. There are violent scenes in the story of Naf Bacha, which are not suitable for children and teenagers, and for this reason, they should be corrected and rewritten. Also, there are words in this story that are bad for children and they should be corrected. In the "fish" story, it is better to replace the fish with another food; Because most children have the experience of eating fish.
In general, it should be said that the reviewed stories have a good philosophical, literary and psychological richness and have the ability to be placed in the philosophical exploration circle of the Fabak program; Although it must be said that there are weaknesses in them that can be used in the Fabak program after modification and rewriting.